70 Energy #SpaceTravel

70 Energy #SpaceTravel

70-1 Comparison
・4.0*10^-19 J  The mass of a electron neutrino [1]
・1.5*10^-8 J   The mass of a proton [2]
・2.0 * 10 ^ -8 J  The mass of a Higgs particle [3]
・10^0(Ten to zero power)=1J(joule) The potential energy of the apple (102 g) of one meter height at the surface of the Earth. [4]
・1.67*10^6 J/day Energy consumption of the human brain
・1.9*10^11J  Kinetic energy to escape objects of 1kg mass from the solar system [4]
・2.5*10^17J  Nuclear energy of the largest explosion in human history (Tsar Bomba, 1961) [4]

70-2 Dyson sphere [4]
○First proposed by theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson in 1960.
○A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output. 
○One theory for an advanced alien race is that they might harness the power of an entire star.
○In addition, it is possible to know the direction of technology development.
○KIC 8462852, located 1,480 light-years away, has produced a series of bizarre light fluctuations researchers cannot explain, so this looks like a Dyson sphere.[5] [6] [7]
○The SETI Institute's initial radio reconnaissance of KIC 8462852, however, found no evidence of technology-related radio signals from the star. [8]
※Image of a Dyson sphere [5]

70-3 Kardashev scale:Civilization's level based on the amount of energy [9]
○In 1964, Kardashev defined three levels of civilizations, based on the order of magnitude of power available to them:
Type I  Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth
≒4.0*10^12 J/s
Type II  A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star
≒4.0*10^26 J/s
Type III  A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy
≒4.0*10^37 J/s

○Michael Garrett concluded that Kardashev Type-III civilisations are either very rare or do not exist in the local Universe.( Aug 2015)

○Reaching period 
Type I   100~200years
Type II   a few thousand years 
Type III  100,000 to a million years 

70-4 Space Solar Power Systems:SSPS 
○The goal time of commercialization of JAXA is 2030.

○Element technology [10]
1) collecting solar energy in space with reflectors or inflatable mirrors onto solar cells 
2) wireless power transmission to Earth via microwave or laser
※However, laser is affected by the weather.
3) receiving power on Earth via a rectenna, a microwave antenna
※Receiving station is installed on the sea or the like.

・In the case of facilities of 1 million kw(1 nuclear power plant) [11]
Transportation costs:50 billin$
Construction costs :13~20 billin$
Running costa :3.4 billin$/yr

※The solar panels is 2km square.
※It is necessary to lower transportation costs to 1/50.
※Construction costs of 1 nuclear power plant is the billions of dollars, but, in the case of Japan, the final disposal site is not.

・Solar Sail ⇔No.65-5 A Plan to Build Interstellar Spacecraft

1. Neutrino - Wikipedia
2. Higgs boson - Wikipedia 
3. Proton - Wikipedia
4. Dyson sphere - Wikipedia
6. No.96 Communication with the Alien
7. Maddie Stone” The So-Called Alien Megastructure Just Got Even More Mysterious”at GIZMODO 20160805
8. KIC 8462852 - Wikipedia 
9. Kardashev scale - Wikipedia
10. Space based solar power - Wikipedia
11. 産経ニュース”「馬鹿げた計画」酷評「宇宙太陽光発電」 NASAが手を引いても開発続ける「技術立国日本」の意地” 2015

70 エネルギー #宇宙旅行

70 エネルギー #宇宙旅行

70-1 比較
・電子ニュートリノの質量:4.0*10^-19 J [1]
・陽子の質量:1.5*10^-8 J [2]
・ヒッグス粒子の質量:2.0*10^-8 J [3]
・地球表面で地表から1メートルの高さにあるリンゴ (102 g) が持つ位置エネルギー:1 J [4]
・脳の消費エネルギー:1.67*10^6 J/日
・質量1kgの物体が太陽系から脱出するために必要な運動エネルギー:1.9*10^11 J [4]
・人類史上最大の核兵器が爆発したときに発したエネルギー(ツァーリ・ボンバ、1961年):2.5*10^17 J [4]

70-2 ダイソン球:星のエネルギー利用 [4]
○地球から1,480 光年離れた恒星KIC 8462852は、不自然な赤外線を発していることから、ダイソン球である可能性がある。[5][6] [7]


70-3 エネルギーの利用レベル:カルダシェフ・スケール[8][9]
第1段階 一つの惑星上で得られる全エネルギーを利用する文明≒4.0*10^12 J/s
第2段階 一つの恒星系で得られる全エネルギーを利用する文明≒4.0*10^26 J/s
第3段階 一つの銀河系で得られる全エネルギーを利用する文明≒4.0*10^37 J/s

○マイケル・ギャレットは、中赤外による地球外文明探索の結果、第3段階の文明は非常にまれか、存在しないと報告している。(2015年8月) [9]

○到達期間 [8]
第1段階 100~200年
第2段階 数千年
第3段階 10万~100万年

70-4 宇宙太陽光発電システム(SSPS:Space Solar Power Systems)[11]





・ソーラーセイル⇔No.65-5 恒星探査計画

【参 考】
1. ニュートリノ - Wikipedia 
2.ヒッグス粒子 - Wikipedia 
3.陽子 - Wikipedia 
4.ダイソン球 - Wikipedia 
6.No.96 宇宙人との交信
7.KIC8462852 - Wikipedia
8.“あのダイソン球と騒がれた星の謎がまた復活”at GIZMODO
9.Kardashev scale - Wikipedia
10. 宇宙太陽光発電 - Wikipedia 
11.産経ニュース”「馬鹿げた計画」酷評「宇宙太陽光発電」 NASAが手を引いても開発続ける「技術立国日本」の意地”2015年3月

69 The Cost of Space Travel #SpaceTravel

69 The Cost of Space Travel #SpaceTravel

○Cargo [1]・・・< >:Success rate(%)
・Falcon(SpaceX/USA)    1.6 billion$/t<79.2>
・Proton(ILS/RUS)      1.7 billion$/t<88.2>
・H2B(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries/JPN) 1.8 billion$/t<100> [2]
・H2A(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries/JPN) 2.1 billion$/t<96.7> [3]
・Ariane( Arianespace/EU)        2.1 billion$/t<95.2>

・Round trip of astronauts to the ISS by Soyuz  70.7million$(2013) [4] 
・The cost of current space travel(4 minutes)  18 million$ [5]

1. Yomiuri Shimbun November 25, 2015
2. H-IIB - Wikipedia
3. H-IIAロケット - Wikipedia 
4. 日経ビジネス online-Shinya Mtsuura
5. Stuart Clark” Virgin Galactic tests new spaceplane”at theguardian.com 20161208


69 宇宙旅行のコスト #宇宙旅行

69 宇宙旅行のコスト #宇宙旅行

○貨物 [1]・・・< >:成功率(%)
・ファルコン(スペースX/米国)   16億円/t<79.2>
・プロトン(ILS/ロシア)     17億円/t<88.2>
・H2B(三菱重工業/日本)     18億円/t<100> [2]
・H2A(三菱重工業/日本)     21億円/t<96.7> [3]
・アリアン(アリアンスペース/欧州) 21億円/t<95.2>

・ソユーズによるISSへの往復  85億円(2013) [4] 
・4分間の宇宙旅行(訓練含む)  25万米ドル [5]

【参 照】
1. 読売新聞 2015年11月25日 
2. H-IIBロケット - Wikipedia 
3. H-IIAロケット - Wikipedia 
4. 松浦 晋也”ウクライナで“困った”。米ロの宇宙での共依存“at 日経ビジネス online
5. 宇宙旅行の御案内 クラブツーリズム(ヴァージンギャラクティック社 日本地区公式代理店)


68 Artificial Gravity #SpaceTravel

68 Artificial Gravity #SpaceTravel

○Almost people can live comfortably under the rotation of the spacecraft (more than 500m radius) in less than 1round per minute. [1]

※Space colony Elysium [2]

○The time it takes to travel between them varies from six to eight months. [3]

※SpaceX plans to Mars[4]

○The trip takes around seven months; a bit longer than astronauts currently stay on the International Space Station. [3]
☆ Therefore, manned Mars exploration is somehow.

○ By the way, MIT has succeeded in the development of artificial gravity generator!(2015)[5]

1. Space Colonization - Wikipedia 
2. Annalee Newitz “Could you really have a space colony like the one in Elysium?”
3. “How long does it take to travel to Mars?”at Mars One
4. Loren Grush”SpaceX plans to send a spacecraft to Mars as early as 2018”at THE VERGE 2016
5. Jennifer Chu “Working out in artificial gravity”at MIT News 2015

68 人工重力 #宇宙旅行

68 人工重力 #宇宙旅行


※スペースコロニー エリジウム [2]

○火星までは片道半年 [3]


○人類の最長宇宙滞在期間は438日(1994年) [5]



【参 照】
1. スペースコロニー - Wikipedia
2.エリジウム / 格差社会と自己犠牲をテーマに分かりやすく。
3. 宇宙放射線による年間被ばく (09-01-06-04) - ATOMICA
4. “米スペースX、2018年の火星探査計画を発表”at NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 日本版
5. 宇宙飛行の記録一覧 - Wikipedia 
6. Jennifer Chu “Working out in artificial gravity”at MIT News 2015


67 Fusion Power #SpaceTravel

67 Fusion Power #SpaceTravel

67-1 ITER( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) [1]
・The goal is to build a fusion power plant in 2040-2050.
・The ITER experimental design has been changed to 2020, one year later than originally planned, under the influence of in eastern earthquake. Aim to start full-scale operation in 2027 as planned. The total project cost is 2 trillion yen.
・In addition, experimental reactor completion of the 2020 has become difficult.

・The name is derived from iter (: Net, Road).
・Seven countries and Region (Japan, China, EU, India, Russia, South Korea, USA)are involved in the this plan.
・ITER construction site is in Cadarache, France.

※Tokamak :A tokamak is a device that uses a toroidal field (traveling around the torus in circles) and a poloidal field (traveling in circles orthogonal to the toroidal field). In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets. In this device, construction cost is cheap but plasma is unstable. [2]

67-2 Nuclear Fusion Reaction [3]
○The most-researched candidate for producing controlled thermonuclear fusion power is D-T fusion reaction. (D: deuterium, T: tritium) 

○Deuterium is contained in large quantities in seawater.
○Tritium is breeded while irradiated with neutrons in lithium blanket surrounding the fusion reactor.


67-3 Proton-proton chain reaction [4]
○The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
○Plasma(atomic nuclei and electrons become apart) is confined by gravity.

Individual reaction

・ν is e-neutrino, γ is gamma ray.
・(1-1) occurs at a rate of99.75%( (1-2) :0.25%).

67-4 Merit and Demerit
○Merit : Nuclear fusion reaction is stopped automatically with a little adjustment mistake.
○Demerit:Radioactive waste of the same level as nuclear power plant.

67-5 Cold Fusion [5]
○The research is continuing.

67-6 News
○The Wendelstein 7-X fusion device(W7-X)(Stellarator)at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald produced its first hydrogen plasma on 3 February 2016. 
・Successive extensions are planned until, in about 4 years, discharges lasting 30 minutes.
The practical application of nuclear fusion is expected of around 2025. [6]

・Germany has forged ahead in funding the project, which in the past 20 years has cost €1.06bn.

※Stellarator [7](Helical Device):A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.
The name refers to the possibility of harnessing the power source of the sun, a stellar object.

※ The diameter of the W7-X is 10m. [7]

○A small, modular, efficient fusion plant (Tokamak)
New design could finally help to bring the long-sought power source closer to reality.
 August 10, 2015  MIT News [8]

Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [8]

1. ITER 
2. Tokamak - Wikipedia
3. Fusion power - Wikipedia
4. Proton-proton chain reaction - Wikipedia
5. Cold Fusion - Wikipedia
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Stellarator - Wikipedia
8. MIT News

67 核融合発電 #宇宙旅行

67 核融合発電 #宇宙旅行

67-1 国際的な核融合実験炉(ITER(イーターと読む))[1]

※トカマク型:トロイダル(Toroidal 円環状の)コイルを流れる電流とプラズマ中を流れるトロイダル電流によってプラズマの閉じこめ磁場を形成する。建設コストが安いがプラズマが不安定。[2]

67-2 核融合反応 [3]



67-3 太陽の核融合反応とどう違う?[4]
○太陽と同程度かそれより質量の小さい恒星でのエネルギー生成の大半を担っているのは陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)。


・ (1-1) は99.75%, (1-2) は0.25%の割合で生じる。

67-4 核融合の利点と欠点 [3]


67-5 常温核融合 [5]

67-6 ニュース
○ドイツのマックス・プランク研究所の核融合炉「ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X」(W7-X)(ステラレーター型)で水素プラズマの生成に成功(20160203)。[6] [7]



○2015年8月 MIT(アメリカ・マサチューセッツ工科大学)が小型核融合炉技術(トカマク型)を開発。2025年までに核融合炉の開発が可能に。[10]

Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [10]

【参 考】
1. ITER - Wikipedia
2. トカマク型 - Wikipedia 
3. 核融合炉 - Wikipedia 
4. 陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)- Wikipedia 
5. Wikipedia - 常温核融合 
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X - Wikipedia
8. ヘリカル型 - Wikipedia 
9. Stellarator - Wikipedia
10. MIT News