76 Space Parasol Project(Measures against global warming)【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

76 Space Parasol ProjectMeasures against global warming)【Space TravelDialogue with the Universe

76-1 Summary
In this plan they set up space-sprinkler at the Lagrangian point, and create parasol with sprayed dust and soot between the earth and sun.
If you establish a space-sprinkler except Lagrangian poin, you should always have corrections to change the location.
Lagrangian point is position where they can rotate around the sun without changing the positional relationship between the sun and the satellite, and there are five points between the sun and the earth.
In the Space parasol plan, a space sprinkler and a space container are sent with a mass driver from a moon base to the Lagrangian point.
A space sprinkler rotates at the Lagrangian point, sprinkling dust and soot, and "The Parasol" will be formed between the sun and the earths.

<a href="http://blog-imgs-15.fc2.com/v/e/n/venus08/2011073122083845b.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://blog-imgs-15.fc2.com/v/e/n/venus08/2011073122083845b.jpg" alt="スペースパラソル計画(一覧)" border="0" width="471" height="682" /></a>

76-2 Similar Project
Initial proposal (1989) [1]
Produce parasols on the moon, and float into space.・・・The parasols are too heavy.

Proposal of the University of Arizona (2006) [1]
The films(having a thickness of 0.005mm diametrically 60cm, and disposed diametrically 5,000km 100,000 km long cylindrical in Lagrange point) scatter sunlight 10%.
The total weight of films is 20 million tons. The films are launched in electro magnetics-based launcher from the ground, and those are moved to the Lagrange point in the ion engine transport aircraft.
・・・The parasol is still heavy.

76-3 Move the Earth [2]
1982  Proposal of  Mieczyslaw Taube
Arranging a huge pulse fusion rocket engine on the equator of the Earth, and moving the Earth to the Jupiter orbit.
In this project Earth's mass is released 10% between 1 billion years.

【参 照】

1.   宇宙日傘《科学情報番組・ヴォイニッチの科学書》2006/11/25

2.   Taube, M., "Future of the Terrestrial Civilization Over a Period of Billions of Years", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol.35, p.219, May 1985

76 スペースパラソル計画(地球温暖化対策)【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

76 スペースパラソル計画(地球温暖化対策)【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

76-1 計画概要


76-2 類似の計画
○最初の提案(1989) [1] 

○アリゾナ大学の提案(2006) [1] 

76-3 地球を動かす [2]
1982年 Mieczyslaw Taubeが提案。

【参 照】
1. 宇宙日傘《科学情報番組・ヴォイニッチの科学書》2006/11/25
2. 太陽が最期を迎えても地球ごと助かる方法 A Successful Failure

75 Energy【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

75 EnergySpace TravelDialogue with the Universe

4.0*10^-19 J  The mass of a electron neutrino [1]
1.5*10^-8 J   The mass of a proton [2]
2.0 * 10 ^ -8 J  The mass of a Higgs particle [3]
10^0(Ten to zero power)=1Jjoule) The potential energy of the apple (102 g) of one meter height at the surface of the Earth. [4]
1.67*10^6 J/day  Energy consumption of the human brain
1.9*10^11J  Kinetic energy to escape objects of 1kg mass from the solar system [4]
2.5*10^17J  Nuclear energy of the largest explosion in human history (Tsar Bomba, 1961) [4]
3.8*10^26J Energy emitted per second from the sun [4]

[1] WikipediaNeutrino
[2] WikipediaHiggs boson
[3] WikipediaProton

[4] WikipediaComparison of energy-Wikipedia

75 エネルギー 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

75 エネルギー 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

・電子ニュートリノの質量:4.0*10^-19 J [1]
・陽子の質量:1.5*10^-8 J [2]
・ヒッグス粒子の質量:2.0*10^-8 J [3]
・地球表面で地表から1メートルの高さにあるリンゴ (102 g) が持つ位置エネルギー:1 J [4]
・脳の消費エネルギー:1.67*10^6 J
・質量1kgの物体が太陽系から脱出するために必要な運動エネルギー1.9*10^11 J [4]
・人類史上最大の核兵器が爆発したときに発したエネルギー(ツァーリ・ボンバ1961年):2.5*10^17 J [4]
1秒間に太陽から放出されるエネルギー:3.8*10^26 J [4]

【参 考】
[1] Wikipedia:ニュートリノ
[2] Wikipedia:ヒッグス粒子
[3] Wikipedia:陽子

[4] Wikipedia:エネルギーの比較

74 The Cost of Space Travel【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

74 The Cost of Space TravelSpace TravelDialogue with the Universe

Cargo [1]・・・< >:Success rate(%)
FalconSpaceXUSA)                 1.6 billion$/t<79.2
ProtonILS/RUS)                1.7 billion$/t<88.2
HBMitsubishi Heavy IndustriesJPN) 1.8 billion$/t<100 [2]
HAMitsubishi Heavy IndustriesJPN) 2.1 billion$/t<96.7> [3]
Ariane ArianespaceEU)        2.1 billion$/t<95.2

Round trip of astronauts to the ISS by Soyuz  70.7million(2013) [4]  
The cost of current space travel(4 minutes)     18 million [5]

1. Yomiuri Shimbun November 25, 2015
2. WikipediaH-IIB
3. WikipediaH-IIAロケット
4. 日経ビジネス onlineShinya Mtsuura
5. Guidance of a space tripClub tourism

74 宇宙旅行のコスト 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

74 宇宙旅行のコスト 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

○貨物 [1]・・・< >:成功率(%)
・ファルコン(スペースX/米国)   16億円/t<79.2
・プロトン(ILS/ロシア)     17億円/t<88.2
・H2B(三菱重工業/日本)     18億円/t<100[2]
・H2A(三菱重工業/日本)     21億円/t<96.7 [3]
・アリアン(アリアンスペース/欧州) 21億円/t<95.2

・ソユーズによるISSへの往復  85億円(2013) [4]  
・4分間の宇宙旅行(訓練含む)  1,800万円 [5]

【参 照】
1. 読売新聞 20151125日 
2. WikipediaH-IIBロケット
3. WikipediaH-IIAロケット
4. 参照:日経ビジネス online-松浦 晋也
5. 宇宙旅行の御案内 クラブツーリズム


73 How to Get the Gravity. 【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

73 How to Get the Gravity. 【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

Almost people can live comfortably under the rotation of the spacecraft (more than 500m radius) in less than 1round per minute 

Source: Wikipedia "Space Colony"


73 重力を得るには 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

73 重力を得るには 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話




72 Fusion Power【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

72 Fusion Power【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

72-1 ITER( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) [1]
・The goal is to build a fusion power plant in 2040-2050.
・The ITER experimental design has been changed to 2020, one year later than originally planned, under the influence of in eastern earthquake. Aim to start full-scale operation in 2027 as planned. The total project cost is 2 trillion yen.
・In addition, experimental reactor completion of the 2020 has become difficult.

・The name is derived from iter (: Net, Road).
・Seven countries and Region (Japan, China, EU, India, Russia, South Korea, USA)are involved in the this plan.
・ITER construction site is in Cadarache, France.

※Tokamak :A tokamak is a device that uses a toroidal field (traveling around the torus in circles) and a poloidal field (traveling in circles orthogonal to the toroidal field). In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets. In this device, construction cost is cheap but plasma is unstable. [2]

72-2 Nuclear Fusion Reaction [3]
○The most-researched candidate for producing controlled thermonuclear fusion power is D-T fusion reaction. (D: deuterium, T: tritium) 
○Deuterium is contained in large quantities in seawater.
○Tritium is breeded while irradiated with neutrons in lithium blanket surrounding the fusion reactor.

72-3 Proton-proton chain reaction [4]
○The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
○Plasma(atomic nuclei and electrons become apart) is confined by gravity.

Individual reaction

・ν is e-neutrino, γ is gamma ray.
・(1-1) occurs at a rate of99.75%( (1-2) :0.25%).

72-4 Merit and Demerit
○Merit : Nuclear fusion reaction is stopped automatically with a little adjustment mistake.
○Demerit:Radioactive waste of the same level as nuclear power plant.

72-5 Cold Fusion [5]
○The research is continuing.

72-6 News
○The Wendelstein 7-X fusion device(W7-X)(Stellarator)at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald produced its first hydrogen plasma on 3 February 2016. 
・Successive extensions are planned until, in about 4 years, discharges lasting 30 minutes.
The practical application of nuclear fusion is expected of around 2025. [6]

・Germany has forged ahead in funding the project, which in the past 20 years has cost €1.06bn.

※Stellarator [7](Helical Device):A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.
The name refers to the possibility of harnessing the power source of the sun, a stellar object.
※ The diameter of the W7-X is 10m. [7]

○A small, modular, efficient fusion plant (Tokamak)
New design could finally help to bring the long-sought power source closer to reality.
 August 10, 2015  MIT News [8]
Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [8]

1. ITER 
2. Wikipedia:Tokamak
3. Wikipedia:Fusion power
4. Wikipedia:Proton-proton chain reaction
5. Wikipedia:Cold Fusion
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Wikipedia:Stellarator
8. MIT News

72 核融合発電【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

72 核融合発電【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

72-1 国際的な核融合実験炉(ITER(イーターと読む))[1]

※トカマク型:トロイダル(Toroidal 円環状の)コイルを流れる電流とプラズマ中を流れるトロイダル電流によってプラズマの閉じこめ磁場を形成する。建設コストが安いがプラズマが不安定。[2]

72-2 核融合反応 [3]

72-3 太陽の核融合反応とどう違う?[4]
○太陽と同程度かそれより質量の小さい恒星でのエネルギー生成の大半を担っているのは陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)。


・ (1-1) は99.75%, (1-2) は0.25%の割合で生じる。

72-4 核融合の利点と欠点 [3]


72-5 常温核融合 [5]

72-6 ニュース
○ドイツのマックス・プランク研究所の核融合炉「ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X」(W7-X)(ステラレーター型)で水素プラズマの生成に成功(20160203)。[6] [7]


○2015年8月 MIT(アメリカ・マサチューセッツ工科大学)が小型核融合炉技術(トカマク型)を開発。2025年までに核融合炉の開発が可能に。[10]
Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [10]

【参 考】
1. Wikipedia:ITER
2. Wikipedia:トカマク型
3. Wikipedia:核融合炉
4. Wikipedia:陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)
5. Wikipedia:常温核融合
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Wikipedia:ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X
8. Wikipedia:ヘリカル型
9. Wikipedia:Stellarator
10. MIT News