68 Fusion Power

68 Fusion Power【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

68-1 ITER( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) [1]
・The goal is to build a fusion power plant in 2040-2050.
・The ITER experimental design has been changed to 2020, one year later than originally planned, under the influence of in eastern earthquake. Aim to start full-scale operation in 2027 as planned. The total project cost is 2 trillion yen.
・In addition, experimental reactor completion of the 2020 has become difficult.

・The name is derived from iter (: Net, Road).
・Seven countries and Region (Japan, China, EU, India, Russia, South Korea, USA)are involved in the this plan.
・ITER construction site is in Cadarache, France.

※Tokamak :A tokamak is a device that uses a toroidal field (traveling around the torus in circles) and a poloidal field (traveling in circles orthogonal to the toroidal field). In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets. In this device, construction cost is cheap but plasma is unstable. [2]

68-2 Nuclear Fusion Reaction [3]
○The most-researched candidate for producing controlled thermonuclear fusion power is D-T fusion reaction. (D: deuterium, T: tritium) 
○Deuterium is contained in large quantities in seawater.
○Tritium is breeded while irradiated with neutrons in lithium blanket surrounding the fusion reactor.

68-3 Proton-proton chain reaction [4]
○The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
○Plasma(atomic nuclei and electrons become apart) is confined by gravity.

Individual reaction

・ν is e-neutrino, γ is gamma ray.
・(1-1) occurs at a rate of99.75%( (1-2) :0.25%).

68-4 Merit and Demerit
○Merit : Nuclear fusion reaction is stopped automatically with a little adjustment mistake.
○Demerit:Radioactive waste of the same level as nuclear power plant.

68-5 Cold Fusion [5]
○The research is continuing.

68-6 News
○The Wendelstein 7-X fusion device(W7-X)(Stellarator)at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald produced its first hydrogen plasma on 3 February 2016. 
・Successive extensions are planned until, in about 4 years, discharges lasting 30 minutes.
The practical application of nuclear fusion is expected of around 2025. [6]

・Germany has forged ahead in funding the project, which in the past 20 years has cost €1.06bn.

※Stellarator [7](Helical Device):A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.
The name refers to the possibility of harnessing the power source of the sun, a stellar object.
※ The diameter of the W7-X is 10m. [7]

○A small, modular, efficient fusion plant (Tokamak)
New design could finally help to bring the long-sought power source closer to reality.
 August 10, 2015  MIT News [8]
Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [8]

1. ITER 
2. Wikipedia:Tokamak
3. Wikipedia:Fusion power
4. Wikipedia:Proton-proton chain reaction
5. Wikipedia:Cold Fusion
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Wikipedia:Stellarator
8. MIT News

68 核融合発電

68 核融合発電【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

68-1 国際的な核融合実験炉(ITER(イーターと読む))[1]

※トカマク型:トロイダル(Toroidal 円環状の)コイルを流れる電流とプラズマ中を流れるトロイダル電流によってプラズマの閉じこめ磁場を形成する。建設コストが安いがプラズマが不安定。[2]

68-2 核融合反応 [3]

68-3 太陽の核融合反応とどう違う?[4]
○太陽と同程度かそれより質量の小さい恒星でのエネルギー生成の大半を担っているのは陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)。


・ (1-1) は99.75%, (1-2) は0.25%の割合で生じる。

68-4 核融合の利点と欠点 [3]


68-5 常温核融合 [5]

68-6 ニュース
○ドイツのマックス・プランク研究所の核融合炉「ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X」(W7-X)(ステラレーター型)で水素プラズマの生成に成功(20160203)。[6] [7]


○2015年8月 MIT(アメリカ・マサチューセッツ工科大学)が小型核融合炉技術(トカマク型)を開発。2025年までに核融合炉の開発が可能に。[10]
Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [10]

【参 考】
1. Wikipedia:ITER
2. Wikipedia:トカマク型
3. Wikipedia:核融合炉
4. Wikipedia:陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)
5. Wikipedia:常温核融合
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Wikipedia:ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X
8. Wikipedia:ヘリカル型
9. Wikipedia:Stellarator
10. MIT News

67 Colonization of the Planet

67 Colonization of the Planet【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

67-1 Colonization in the solar system
67-1-1 International Space Station (ISS)(1999~2024)) [1]
・Altitude:400 km
・Crew: 6 people
・Participating countries:USA, Russia, the European Space Agency, Canada, Japan 
・It requires little replenishment of water by also play the water from the urine not only the condensed water in the air. [2]
・Additional crewmembers are transported to the ISS by Soyuz.
・Total cost: 154 billion dollars [2]

※ISS [3]

67-1-2 Earth’s Moon
○Google and the X Prize Foundation will hold the moon unmanned exploration race "Google Luna • X Prize (GLXP)"! [4]
・Race participants compete to send high-definition images and videos to the earth until the end 2017.
・Grand Prize $20 million 

○About the Moon [5]
・Average distance from Earth: 380,000 km 
・Travel time:3 days
・Gravity:1/6 of that found on Earth 
・Atmosphere:With too sparse an atmosphere to impede impacts, a steady rain of asteroids, meteoroids and comets strikes the surface of the moon. 
・Water:In 2009, orbiting spacecraft discovered water molecules on the moon.
・Oxigen:The crust is made of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminum, with small amounts of titanium, uranium, thorium, potassium and hydrogen.
・Radiation:It does not provide any protection from the sun's radiation.
・Long ago the moon had active volcanoes, but today they are all dormant and have not erupted for millions of years. 


67-1-3 Mars
67-1-3-1 Mars One[6 ][7]
○Mars One aims to create a permanent human colony on Mars in 2027. 
2016 Latest tests will cut candidates down to just 40 - 24 of whom will make the trip
2017 The first teams of candidates are expected to be selected and start training. 
2020 A demonstration mission is sent to Mars to test technologies, while a satellite is placed into Martian orbit.
2022 A rover is launched to Mars to find a settlement location.
2024 Mars One sends a second rover, two living units, two life support systems and a supply unit to Mars, to form the habitat.
2027  First humans land on Mars
2028~ Additional 2crews will land every two years.

○Mars One is possible with conventional technology, but funding is a problem.
・Cost: $ 6 billion
(Funds are raised in broadcasting rights and donations.)
(So far, it has raised $ 780,000.)

※Mars One Webshop [7]

67-1-3-2 SpaceX [8]
○The SpaceX CEO has unveiled a vision for the colonization of Mars that he says will involve hundreds of reusable craft, each carrying somewhere between 100 and 250 colonists or so and also producing fuel from available resources on Mars for the return trips.
2018 Unmanned missions could commence.

67-1-3-3 About Mars [9]
・A trip to Mars:6–7 months
・Diameter:half of the Earth
・Gravity:about 40% of the Earth
・Rotation period:24 hours and 40 minutes
・Satellites, two (Deimos, Phobos)
・Air:0.75% of the Earth (95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon)
・Water:there is ice in the basement.
・Due to the lack of a magnetosphere, solar particle events and cosmic rays can easily reach the Martian surface.
・Rradiation levels in orbit above Mars are 2.5 times higher than at the International Space Station.

67-1-4 Space elevators
○Now, why do we need space elevators?
○Because transportation cost of space elevator is 1/160 of the rocket.
※Transportation cost of space elevator::5million~10 million$/t(Falcon:1.6billion$/t) [10]

○In 2012, the Obayashi Corporation announced that in 38 years it could build a space elevator using carbon nanotube technology. At 200 kilometers per hour, the design's 30-passenger climber would be able to reach the GEO level after a 7.5 day trip. [10]
○An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit (35,800 km altitude). [10]
○To construct a space elevator on Earth the cable material would need to be both stronger and lighter. [10]
※ The length of the cable: 144,000km, weight :7,000t
○The estimated construction costs would be $10 billion.

※宇宙エレベーター [11]

67-2 Alpha Centauri [12]
○Alpha Centauri (α Cen) is the closest star system to the Solar System at 4.37 ly. It consists of three stars
○Mass and Age
・A:1.1M(the mass of the Sun)、4.85 billion years
・B:0.907M、4.85 billion years 
・C (Proxima):0.123M、4.85 billion years 
○Reaching period:30,000 years(Current technology) 
○About 25,000 years later, Alpha Centauri will be 3.26 ly away.
○If you think the energy and safety between the long-term move, it is necessary to utilize the forces of nature.
→No.81 Starship Solar-System(SSS)

○The Sun lies at a distance of 25,000–28,000 light-years from the Milky Way Galactic Center. The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy that has a diameter usually considered to be about 100,000–120,000 light-years
・The Milky Way contains over 200 billion stars.

☆Depending on the movement of neighborhood stars, there is a possibility that the sun is close to the other stars.

※The monement of the local solar neighborhood [13]

67-4 Collision with Andromeda Galaxy [14]
○In about four billion years, the Milky Way will collide with its nearest neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy. The two are rushing towards each other at about 112 km per second.
○After the Collision the two galaxy should settle into a smooth elliptical galaxy.

67-5 News
○A diamond planet was found![15]
・This planet is only 40 light-years away.
・It takes 300,000 years for one way, 600,000 years for round trip by the spacecraft.

☆Hasten the development of the Hayabusa-Z!

1. Tim Sharp”International Space Station: Facts, History & Tracking“at Space.com 2160405
3.”The International Space Station: Together is the Future” NASA
4. "Google Luna • X Prize (GLXP)"
5. Moon: Home - NASA
6.MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM “The final countdown for Mars One: 100 remaining candidates for controversial one way trip to undergo 'intense' testing” 20160606
7. Mars One
8. Sid Perkins”Elon Musk’s path to Mars begins with Red Dragon—but what science will it do?”at Science 20160927
9. Wikipedia:C olonization of Mars
10. Wikipedia:Space elevator
11. 石井 英男”宇宙エレベーターが実現する「2050年宇宙の旅」” at TELESCOPE Magazine 2013
12.Wikipedia:Alpha Centauri
13. BhavanaJagat
14. Nola Taylor Redd” The Andromeda Galaxy (M31): Location, Characteristics & Images”at SPACE.com 20120508
15. Caterina Visco” Il pianeta di diamante”at WIRED 20120812

67 惑星への植民

67 惑星への植民 【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

67-1 太陽系内植民
67-1-1 国際宇宙ステーション(1999~2024) [1]

※ISS [2]

67-1-2 月

○月の諸元 [4]


67-1-3 火星
67-1-3-1 マーズワン(Mars One)>[5 ][6]
2016年9月 移住希望者24人を選ぶ。
2017年 最初のチームを選抜し、訓練を始める。
2020年 実験施設を火星に送り込み、火星の衛星軌道に衛星を設置する。
2022年 ローバーを送り込む。
2024年 生命維持施設を2基設置する。
2027年 4人を火星に移住させる。

(これまでに、$ 780000を調達)

※Mars One Webshop [7]

67-1-3-2 スペースX(SpaceX)社 [8]
○ファルコン9(Falcon 9)ブースターをスケールアップしたものを使う。
2018年 無人宇宙貨物船「ドラゴン(Dragon)」を火星に送り込む。
2025年 有人宇宙船が火星に到着。

67-1-3-3 火星の諸元 [9]

67-1-4 宇宙エレベーター
※宇宙エレベータの輸送コスト:0.05億円~0.1億円/t [11] (ファルコンは16億円/t) [12]



※宇宙エレベーター [13]

67-2 ケンタウルス座アルファ星 [14]
→No.81 星船=宇宙船太陽系号

67-3 太陽周辺の恒星の動き [15]


67-4 アンドロメダ銀河との衝突 [15]

67-5 News

【参 照】
1. Wikipedia:国際宇宙ステーション
2. ”The International Space Station: Together is the Future” NASA
3. Pavel Alpeyev”グーグルが月面無人探査レース、賞金25億円-日本チームも参戦”at Bloomberg
4. Wikipedia:月の植民
5.MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM “The final countdown for Mars One: 100 remaining candidates for controversial one way trip to undergo 'intense' testing” 20160606
6. Mars One
7. Mars One Webshop
8. “火星コロニー構想、スペースXのマスク氏発表 「楽しい旅」に”at YAHOO! JAPAN ニュース 20160928
8. 米山 慎吾“マーズワンの火星移住計画は2025年に4人?プロジェクトの評判が?”at 40’s Exchange Hack 20160208
10. “驚愕!!2021年には宇宙エレベータで宇宙へ行ける!!のか?”at NAVER まとめ
11.No.70 宇宙旅行のコスト
12. 石井 英男”宇宙エレベーターが実現する「2050年宇宙の旅」” at TELESCOPE Magazine 2013
14. moonrainbouw”宇宙への旅人 太陽系は高速で移動している!”
15.Caterina Visco”ダイヤモンドでできた惑星”at WIRED